Tuesday, 3 June 2014
Dysentery in China - the good news and the bad news
Dysentery is one of those disease most westerners associate with 'the olden days' - or the Third World.
Bacillary dysentery, also known as Shigellosis, is the severe gastro disease of poor hygiene, spread by faecal contamination. Ten years ago dysentery was still relatively common in Guangzhou, but a new report shows the city has brought rates of the disease down with a co-ordinated campaign to detect and manage cases and prevent further outbreaks. In 2006 the city had about 12 cases of dysentery per 100,000 population - so for a city of 8.5 million people that's more than a thousand cases a year. To tackle the infection, the city health department implemented the "Intestinal Infectious Disease Surveillance, Prevention and Control Program" (IIDSPCP). This means that once a patient is suspected as having Bacillary dysentery, public health workers target their household with preventive measures such as quarantine, disinfection, and good personal hygiene practices mandatorily implemented by local government. This program has seen the rate of dysentery cut to around 2 per 100,000. Good news so far. However, public health staff say dysentery still remains a problem in the poorest families - as judged by the high rates among children who do not attend school. They now account for the largest group of patients with dysentery.
This social group - usually migrant workers from the poor inland provinces - is China's new underclass. As the report notes: "They are usually lacking in adequate sanitation, with low health risk awareness, and more likely to have exposure to contaminated food or water. It has been reported that compared to the other group, the school-age children not attending school have higher incidence in many infectious diseases such as hand-food-mouth disease, infectious diarrhea, and hepatitis A."
Interestingly, the other high risk group for dysentery is young people aged the people aged 20-44 years - perhaps because they take part in more social activities, have more chance to contact with Shigella patients or carriers, and have more leisure time, and finance to travel and thus more likely to have exposure to Shigellosis.
As the report authors conclude: "more effort should be made to enhance health education about dysentery and monitoring/targeting at school-age children not attending school ... .as well as establish strategies for prevention of the disease in China."